What are the three types of birth injury asphyxia? | Shapiro, Washburn & Sharp
  1. Fetal Stroke: When there is a disruption of blood flow to the brain, the infant can suffer a prenatal stroke. This is one of the most common causes of cerebral palsy. Fetal strokes can also be caused by the wrong use of forceps or vacuum extractors or a failure of the doctor to diagnose medical conditions in the mother, such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, or autoimmune disorders.
  2. Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE): HIE occurs when there is a lack of oxygen to the brain. Brain swelling also occurs, causing the blood supply to be cut off. As the body attempts to protect the brain, other organs can be damaged. Complications in labor or delivery, maternal health issues, preventable infections, and the failure to perform a Cesarean section can cause HIE.
  3. Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: Meconium is the fecal matte that a newborn passes shortly after they are born. If the infant experiences stress while still in the uterus, they may pass the meconium and inhale the meconium while still in utero or right after delivery. Meconium can cause the baby’s lungs to swell and block the airways.